NI Showcases Smart Platforms and Tools for the Indian Aerospace & Defence Industry

Key highlights:

  • Presented smarter approach to system design in Aerospace & Defence
  • Displayed flexible HIL Test Systems for Embedded Controllers & Data Acquisition Systems for A&D Industry
  • Partners demonstrated their live applications and how NI is supporting their business 

INDIA, Bangalore – June 21, 2017: NI (Nasdaq: NATI), the provider of systems that enable engineers and scientists to solve the world’s greatest engineering challenges, hosted the India Defence and Aerospace Symposium 2017 in association with Society of Indian Aerospace Technologies and Industries (SIATI). The symposium which witnessed a footfall of 500, was attended by engineers, scientists, managers and professionals in the aviation, space and defence industries and focused on navigation, RADAR, Electronics Warfare, Military Communications, Satellites as well as test rig construction and HIL.

At the event, NI showcased how the design, development and test challenges of the Indian Aerospace & Defence (A&D) Industry can be integrated by smart platforms & tools powered by ready-made technology. The diverse set of industry experts present, shared their ideas on revolution in simulation and test solutions, challenges of RADAR design & test, advanced techniques for phase aligned RF signal generation & acquisition and data acquisition systems for A&D applications.

Commenting on the importance of system design for the Aerospace and Defence industry, Tarun Gupta, Business Development Manager, National Instruments India, said, “India is an established technology hub for engineering services and product development for the global defence market. At National Instruments, it is our endeavor to provide the best-in-class testing solutions for enabling this industry rapidly develop and deploy systems. The India Defence and Aerospace Symposium 2017 gives us a platform to showcase the advanced technologies that can help build modern & reliable automated test systems for the aerospace & defence segments.” 

At the event, NI showcased:

  • Smarter approach to system design in Aerospace & Defence
  • Prototyping & Testing modern Electronic Warfare (EW) Systems and RADARs
  • Gigahertz Record & Playback Systems & Using Software Defined Radios (SDRs) for prototyping communications systems for A&D industry
  • Validating and Testing of Avionic Systems & Advanced Techniques for Phase Aligned signal generation and acquisition
  • Architecting Flexible HIL Test Systems for Embedded Controllers & Data Acquisition Systems for A&D Industry

The annual National Instruments Defence & Aerospace event aims to bring together and share domain knowledge and best practices from partners in the Indian Aerospace and Defence industry.

 

India Defence & Aerospace Symposium

What: Society of Indian Aerospace Technologies and Industries (SIATI) in association with National Instruments is organizing India Defence and Aerospace Symposium 2017 which focuses on how the design, development and test challenges of indigenously developed state-of-the-art systems in the Indian Aerospace & Defence (A&D) Industry can be met by smart platforms & tools powered by off-the-shelf technology.

This exclusive event is dedicated to the engineers, scientists, managers and professionals in the aviation, space and defense industries, focused on navigation, RADAR, Electronics Warfare, Military Communications, Satellites as well as test rig construction and HIL.

Where & When:
Bangalore – Wed, June 14 – ITC Gardenia, No.1 Residency Road
Hyderabad – Wed, June 21 – Hotel Novotel, Rajiv Gandhi Intl Airport

The event will be structured to discuss both industry trends and opportunities, also solutions for selected technical challenges. During morning keynotes, industry experts will cover topics revolving around cost of test, time-to-market and managing innovation in Aerospace and Defense industry. The main topics covered in the afternoon will be within Automated Test & RF Systems.

Why attend – Key highlights:

  • A smarter approach to system design in Aerospace & Defence
  • Prototyping & Testing modern Electronic Warfare (EW) Systems and RADARs
  • Gigahertz Record & Playback Systems & Using Software Defined Radios (SDRs) for prototyping communications systems for A&D industry
  • Validating and Testing of Avionic Systems & Advanced Techniques for Phase Aligned signal generation and acquisition
  • Architecting Flexible HIL Test Systems for Embedded Controllers & Data Acquisition Systems for A&D Industry

    Partners of NI will demonstrate their live applications across the event in an Exhibition Area and how NI is supporting their business.

    India Defence and Aerospace Symposium is an opportunity to learn about new tools and techniques that make adapting to rapidly changing technologies easier and faster.

    For more details, including how to register and to view the agenda, please go to:

india.ni.com/IDAS-bangalore

india.ni.com/IDAS-hyderabad

 

Mahindra Electric Promotes the Cause of Sustainable Mobility on World Earth Day

Organizes ‘Electric Drive’ with its EV fleet in Delhi, Pune & Bengaluru 

From LtoR Praveen Salins, Sanjay Krishnan and Mahesh Babu, CEO, Mahindra ElectricBengaluru, April 22, 2017: Mahindra Electric, part of the diversified USD 17.8 billion Mahindra Group and a pioneer in the development and production of electric vehicles in India, today organised the ‘Electric Drive’ with its electric vehicle fleet on the occasion of the World Earth Day. A unique customer engagement initiative aimed at encouraging a clean drive for a greener and better today and tomorrow, the drive was organized in Delhi, Pune and Bengaluru.

A cavalcade of around 77 electric vehicles from the Mahindra Electric stable, which included the e2o and the e2oPlus drove around Bengaluru spreading the message of conserving the Earth and making it a better place to stay. The idea was to encourage people to go green by switching to a zero emissions car.

Speaking on the occasion, Mahesh Babu, CEO, Mahindra Electric said, “As a responsible corporate citizen and the pioneer of electric vehicles in India, we take it upon us to spread the awareness about the benefits of electric vehicles. There could not be a better opportunity to do this than the World Earth Day.  At Mahindra Electric we will continue to uphold the cause of sustainable mobility and encourage the adoption of electric vehicles to outsmart pollution. After all it is about a change for a cleaner smarter and greener today and tomorrow.”

Since 2013 Mahindra Electric has negated over 5,200 tonnes of tailpipe emissions with its all electric cars.

 

NI and AT&T Collaborate on One of the World’s Fastest mmWave Channel Sounders for 5G

New System Provides Measurements of mmWave Spectrum in Milliseconds 

Bengaluru, India, April 13, 2017 – NI (Nasdaq: NATI), the provider of platform-based systems that enable engineers and scientists to solve the world’s greatest engineering challenges, and AT&T* (NYSE: T) today announced their collaboration on one of the world’s fastest and most accurate tools for 5G  Millimeter Wave (mmWave) channel characterization.

mmWave frequencies look to play a big role in the future of 5G. They have already been earmarked by the FCC, 3GPP and other standardization bodies for 5G mobile networks. Channel measurements capture how wireless signals are affected in a given environment. For instance, channel measurements can show how signals reflect off of, or are blocked by, objects, such as trees, buildings, cars and even people.

Wireless channel characterization is very important for wireless researchers defining 5G technologies as it will help lay the foundation for the architecture and design of these new wireless networks. AT&T and NI believe this work will likely play a role in AT&T’s future 5G deployment, through the creation of accurate models that help map out the details of where AT&T places its network equipment to provide customers with the best possible mobile experience.

“Utilizing mmWave spectrum for mobile 5G presents many challenges which we believe can be solved,” said Marachel Knight, senior vice president of wireless network architecture and design, AT&T. “We identified early on that designing and real-time monitoring of mmWave spectrum needs to be much more precise than today’s cellular systems. With the help of NI’s flexible hardware and software platform, AT&T developed a new type of channel sounder and we’re using it to develop highly-advanced models that will work for our network.”

Nicknamed internally within AT&T as the “Porcupine,” the channel sounder is the first of its kind and is proprietary to AT&T. It provides real-time channel parameter measurement and monitoring capability. The channel sounder, designed by AT&T, utilizes an architecture based on NI’s mmWave Transceiver System. This one-of-a-kind design provides several key advantages. It allows angle-of-arrival (AoA) measurements that would typically take 15 minutes or more to be completed (using pan-tilt units) to be performed within 150 milliseconds and display the results in real-time.

The channel sounder uniquely captures channel measurements where all the data is acquired and processed in real-time. Other channel sounding approaches capture raw data and post process to characterize the channel while only giving one-measurement every 15 minutes. The “Porcupine” on the other hand can provide about 6,000 measurements in that time. It’s like capturing 15-minutes of action with a video instead of a still photo. A video tells the whole story, while a photo just shows a moment.

The capability of real-time measurement eliminates the need to repeat experiments or to adjust the equipment to take multiple measurements from one location.  Since parameter extraction is done in real-time, the integrity of collected data can also be evaluated in real-time. Thus inaccurate data can be replaced immediately with a new set of measurements at the time of evaluation. Using other approaches, an entire evaluation day could potentially be lost if the collected data is post-processed.

To AT&T and NI’s knowledge, the speed and accuracy of this mmWave channel sounder makes it uniquely capable of making fast measurements of a channel. Thus, for example, the “Porcupine” allows the measurement of 5G mmWave frequencies via drive testing. This capability has previously remained out of reach for other mmWave channel sounders. As the 5G ecosystem looks at new use cases for 5G such as assisted driving, connected car, self-driving cars and more, the ability to study and model vehicular channels will become ever more critical.

“The NI mmWave Transceiver System and LabVIEW system design software enabled AT&T and NI to define and develop a channel measurement system unmatched in the industry today,” said James Kimery, director of RF research and SDR marketing at NI. “The combination of PXIe and LabVIEW FPGA provided the bandwidth, data and signal processing capability, and flexibility necessary to meet the requirements of mmWave and expedite 5G deployment.”

India’s ESDM sector to optimistically reach US$228 billion by 2020 says IESA and EY report announced at Vision Summit 2017

“Design led manufacturing to amplify growth of India’s ESDM industry” said IESA

The IESA Technovation Sarabhai Award went to Dr. Kiran Kumar, Chairman – Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 

Bangalore, India: February 21, 2017: India Electronics and Semiconductor Association (IESA), the premier trade body, representing the Indian electronic system design and manufacturing (ESDM) today commenced IESA Vision Summit 2017. This is the 12th edition of Vision Summit focused on the central theme of Design led Manufacturing- Redefining the future of India’s ESDM. This edition will feature large and medium sized IT companies as well as the starts ups. IESA is working along with the Central/State Government in developing policies and taking measures to scale up indigenous production in India to meet the rising demand for electronics.

The riveting inauguration of the summit was addressed by Sh. Rajiv Bansal, Joint Secretary, MeitY, Govt. of India, Ravi Gururaj, President, TiE Bangalore and K Krishna Moorthy, Chairman, IESA.

press-briefing-k-krishna-moorthy-chairman-iesa-rajiv-bansal-dy-secretary-meity

The Summit attracted thought provoking keynotes, panel sessions and workshops from CXO’s of global majors like Cypress Semiconductors, Rambus, Qualcomm, IBM, Tessolve, Seagate, Western Digital, MediaTek, Applied Materials and IMEC, Lam Research, Soitec and many others. The event also attracted delegations from Japan, Scotland, Taiwan and Philippines, France, Belgium and USA. The workshops on “Designing with Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI) technology for IOT products, Creating ESDM Product Innovation Hubs on Campus” and “India Digital Broadcast” was also well received by the attendees of Vision Summit 2017.

The Summit also marked the announcement of IESA – EY executive summary report highlights which stated India’s ESDM sector to optimistically reach about US$228 billion by 2020. It also added that, the $100+ billion opportunity in 2016-17 will grow further at a CAGR of 16- 23%. Apart from sector specific drivers, the forecasts are based upon overall GDP growth of India, currency movement, inflation, existing trade agreements, consumer sentiments, potential government consumption, existing government policies, investments (foreign and domestic), manufacturing entities (existing Indian players, foreign players, Indian conglomerates, start-ups) and type of value addition in India.

Other highlights pointed out that, the domestic manufacturing for Electronic Products has been growing at a CAGR of 17% which is expected to increase further over next 5 years. Electronic Manufacturing Services segment has seen a huge growth over the past two years and has grown from $0.5bn. in 2013 to $1.0 bn. in 2015. Indian EMS market is estimated to witness exponential growth of 42-68% over the next five years to reach US$6-13.2 billion.

Many IESA Member companies highlighted their commitment to Make in India through investments as a part of M-SIPS approvals. The total combined investment is envisaged to be more than Rs. 1,700 crores.

Senior officials from the state governments of Karnataka, Kerala, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand highlighted the formulation and implementation of ESDM policies in their respective states.

In a glittering Technovation awards event in the evening Sh. Umesh Prasad Sah, Director – IT, Govt. of Jharkhand, Sh. Shailendra Kumar Tyagi, Director, STPI – Bangalore, Sh. S V Rasal, Managing Director, Institute for Design of Electrical Measuring Instruments (IDEMI) , Sh. Santosh Kumar, President & MD, Texas Instruments and Shri K Krishna Moorthy, Chairman IESA presented the prestigious IESA Technovation Awards 2016 for excellence in Electronics System Design and Manufacturing across various categories.  The Prestigious IESA Technovation Sarabhai Award went to Dr. Kiran Kumar, Chairman – Indian Space Research Organisation.

In his inaugural speech, K. Krishna Moorthy, Chairman, IESA said “We see the year ahead as a year where the ESDM industry will scale up in value addition and value proposition. With the ongoing digital revolution in the country and the thrust from the government to use technology to improve governance delivery to the people, the requirement for developing new and better innovative products and solutions are growing by the day. This has opened up a number of opportunities to promote both product and solutions development and manufacturing them in our country. IESA believes in an integrated approach which is sustainable over a long period of time and hence are focusing on Design and IP ownership as a significant component in our efforts to boost and sustain the manufacturing eco system. Our efforts in recent years to make India grow in different spheres of the ESDM eco system has brought out the need for a continuous development of four key aspects namely- Start up growth, Talent development, Technology exposure and design ownership. Our efforts in the recent years have been to set these pillars of growth and create sustainable growth engine in ESDM. Our close association with the central and state governments as well as prominent institutions and industry members have encouraged us to become future ready.” 

Highlighting the involvement of various state governments in the conclave, Mr. M. N. Vidyashankar, President, IESA said, “We are a trusted advisory to the Government of India, and have been advocating India’s stance as an ESDM powerhouse. We believe that designing is a crucial component for the development of a successful innovation. At Vision 2017, we are not only promoting local manufacturing but also focusing on the relevance of design led manufacturing and its contribution towards the growth of India’s ESDM sector. With the allocation and incentives of schemes like M-SIPS and EDF to Rs745 crore in this year’s budget, we strongly believe that India will be the next manufacturing powerhouse of the globe.”

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IESA Vision Summit 2017 included a workshop on Designing with Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI) technology for IOT products. It was led by Paul Boudre, Chairman of the Board & CEO, SOITEC (a world leader in designing and manufacturing innovative semiconductor materials); Max Mirgoli, Executive Vice President of World Wide Strategic Partnerships, IMEC; Thomas Piliszczuk, Executive Vice President of Marketing & Business Development, SOITEC and Dr. Ajit Manocha, Executive Chairman of the Board, POET Technologies. An intensive and exhaustive session with industry leaders delineating the newest technology in semiconductor manufacturing, i.e., fully depleted silicon on insulator (FDSOI). FDSOI is touted to be an alternative to bulk silicon as a substrate for building CMOS devices. The panelists will discuss and debate whether FDSOI gives major competitive advantages at 28 nm and 20 nm due to its lower power consumption and higher performance compared to planar bulk CMOS. Will the ultra-low voltage capability be a boon for IoT applications that get their energy perhaps from harvesting vibrations, solar, etc.? Be a part of this interesting workshop if you would like your doubts clarified on the suitability of FDSOI technology and architectural solutions for IoT applications. 

Vision Summit 2017 is aptly titled “Design-Led Manufacturing- Redefining the future of India’s ESDM” since ESDM has already been established as the sunrise sector where the next manufacturing boom is happening. At this conference, we bring you thought leaders from all verticals associated with this sector to discuss, debate and figure out ways to make IP creation happen in India. Let’s put our heads together to plan on solutions to make India the global manufacturing hub for ESDM.

INDIAN IOT MARKET SET TO GROW UPTO USD 15 BILLION BY 2020

Manufacturing, Automotive, Transportation & Logistics to be key industries driving IoT growth in India

Bengaluru, October 5, 2016: Focusing on the rise and evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) across industries in India, the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) today kick-started the 8th edition of NASSCOM Design and Engineering Summit at The Leela Palace, Bengaluru. The two-day event focusing on the theme of, ‘Imagineering for the Digital Future’ analyses the role that IoT will play in creating digital utilities especially in the areas of design and engineering that will drive the growth of future technologies in the country.

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Expressing his thoughts on the upturn of applied IoT in India, Mr. Kevin Ashton, Inventor of the Internet of Things and Author, mentioned that, “ÏoT has started being incorporated into both consumer and industrial applications being utilized in critical verticals like Healthcare, Automotive and Manufacturing. The ecosystem is rapidly expanding, owing to demand for both Industrial and Consumer IoT applications and is set to be a critical part of the next level of growth for the IT industry.”

On the side-lines of the summit, NASSCOM in collaboration with Deloitte also launched a report on ‘IoT – Revolution in the Making’. The report lays emphasis on the growth of Internet of Things, as not just creating consumer solutions but also adding value in industrial applications. Reiterating the need for innovative solutions, the report states that the IoT segment is expected to grow across industries, with Utilities, Manufacturing, Automotive and Transportation & Logistics providing greater opportunities for development, compared to other sectors.

Speaking of the focus of IoT in the Design and Engineering industry Mr. R Chandrasekhar, President, NASSCOM, said,”IoT as a concept has seen vested interests from across industries globally and is set to become a major differentiator in driving the next generation of services and products. In India, while the industry is at a nascent stage industrial applications of IoT primarily in manufacturing, automotive and transportation & logistics are expected to drive IoT revenues by 2020.”

$400B ‘Make in India’ Opportunity: ESDM Industry Visionaries Issue a Clarion Call to Make it a Reality

  • Focus more on Talent Development, Startup growth, Academia Involvement, and IP creation, says IESA Action Plan

  • Only 3,500 electronics manufacturing units and therefore the need to set up more unit in India for reaching zero import

  • The National Electronics Policy calls for $100Bn investments in this sector, which will result in 28 Mn jobs

Bangalore, India: February 4, 2016: India Electronics and Semiconductor Association (IESA), the premier trade body, representing the Indian Electronic System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM), today concluded IESA Vision Summit 2016, its annual industry leadership conclave, with an Action Plan for achieving the $400B ‘Make in India’ ESDM opportunity. The Action plan constitutes of 4 components – Talent Development, Strengthen Startup Ecosystem, Industry-Academia involvement and IP Creation.

Chief Guest for the occasion, Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, Hon’ble Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India said, “The industry has a fairly big challenge to meet. There is lack of balance between demand and supply of electronics in India and this is a serious concern. Electronics is the third biggest import after crude oil and gold. There are only 3,500 electronics manufacturing units and therefore the need to set up more units in India for reaching zero import. The National Electronics Policy calls for $100Bn investments in this sector, which will result in 28 Mn jobs. But, between 2000 and 2014-15, we have had only $1.53 Bn coming in this sector while 100% FDI in this sector has been given.”

Manufacturing is the second 5 year plan and the government tried to address it through National Manufacturing Policy. However, presently its contribution to GDP is only 12% – 14%. Services sector contributes to 50% GDP but that is not creating jobs. Manufacturing contribution should be 25% by 2022. We are hopeful National Knowledge Network, National Optical Fibres, Digitization program, Broadband push, will generate more demand and employability. Startups today are looking at application based technology to facilitate the consumer. Space technology, R&D towards core Science, Physics based Science, Earth Science are the areas where India has strengths. Technology needs to come there too,” added Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman.

Guest of Honour, Shri. Krishna Byre Gowda, Minister for Agriculture, Govt. of Karnataka, stated, “Bangalore has been spearheading the growth of ESDM sector, along with creating new opportunities, new avenues and hence, employability. The agricultural markets need to be integrated with the help of technologies. There are 155 markets spread out across Karnataka and commodities are traded at different rates, bringing a disharmony in the ecosystem. However, with technology integration, it is possible to have one unified single online based agriculture market across the country. Presently, technology penetration in agriculture is still at a very low level and it needs to be relooked.”

The government of India has given a clarion call of ‘Make in India’ to boost the nation’s domestic manufacturing sector as well as to produce for the export market. The demand for electronics hardware in the country is projected to touch USD 400 billion by 2020 as indicated in the Task Force Report. This creates a unique opportunity for companies in the ESDM (Electronic System Design & Manufacturing) sector to look at India as their next destination to cater to the domestic Indian demand as well as act as an exports hub.

With ‘Make in India’ wave in the ESDM landscape, the industry realised the need for developing talent in order to address the $400B opportunity. India is a diversified nation and each state has their own priorities. The industry assumes immense requirement for skilled manpower, mostly engineers and hence, necessitate a pool of talent equipped for the electronics ecosystem.

Today, India trains around 1.5 million engineers per year, more than what the US and China jointly produces. However, 15% of the engineers who graduate, find a job immediately and hence, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way the various technical courses are structured. It is also essential that the engineering graduates are made trade worthy through collaboration with industries and an exposure to industrial working conditions,” said Vinay Shenoy, Chairman, IESA.

The government’s ‘Make in India’ initiative is projected to make India a preferred manufacturing destination encompassing 25 sectors that includes ESDM, automobileschemicalsIT , aviation, design manufacturing, renewable energy and several other sectors that rely heavily on electronics, expanding the opportunities to create employment, purchasing power, spending and supply. As India attempts to become a manufacturing nation, the ESDM start-up ecosystems are uniquely positioned to drive innovation and deliver path-breaking products. Start-ups also have the advantage of being able to focus on niche, cutting-edge technologies while also managing to remain extremely nimble.

IESA, realising the true potential of the startup ecosystem, has been spearheading various initiatives with the industry to identify startups in the electronics and IoT space in order to make them flourish with the required mentorship, incubation and help them to derive their go-to-market strategy and scale their ideas into sustainable businesses.

Over the last two decades, we have witnessed the growth of services space which have definitely taken the nation to a high-growth economy, taking the start-up ecosystem along with them. Now, with government’s ‘Make in India’ agenda, we are seeing a similar transition in the ESDM landscape and the start-ups are carrying the baton of ‘Make in India’ success,” said, M.N. Vidyashankar, President, IESA.

India’s strength in design is well-acknowledged around the world. Despite its strength, the nation has been struggling in terms of IP creation and hence, the industry needs to increase their investments in R&D to enrich India’s intellectual capital.

The Indian business fraternity needs to rise to the occasion and help the nation to create new benchmarks in the global IP ecosystem,” added Mr. Vidyashankar.

$400B ‘Make in India’ Opportunity: IESA taking the Lead

DEFENCE ELECTRONICS POLICY

IESA is mandated by Ministry of Defense (MoD) to write a first ever detailed “Defence Electronics and System Design Policy” along with Nasscom and same shall be released soon. IESA with Roland Berger also released the whitepaper ‘Defence Electronics Market- Perspectives and recommendations’ at Deftronics 2015 in Delhi which is firmly believed to be a yardstick for India’s defence electronics sector in recent time to come.

START-UP INITAITIVES

  • At an exclusive innovation showcase event, organized at the Intel campus in Bangalore, 16 start-ups, selected from a strenuous scrutiny process of 60 preliminary applicants, were provided a platform to showcase path breaking IoT innovations in their respective domains. The objective was to create and foster an ecosystem to promote start-ups that develop fabless semiconductor and electronic products especially around connected devices or IoT. A jury panel further shortlisted Cardiac Design Labs for a sponsored visit to the prestigious SRII Global Conference in 2015 at San Jose, California.

  • IESA, TiE and MediaTek Labs held a joint event to promote and support start-ups and entrepreneurs in fabless semiconductor and electronic products in the IoT or connected devices space in 2015. Five selected startups and six student innovators showcased their path breaking IoT innovations across healthcare and farming sectors.

  • IESA along with DeitY, STPI, Delhi University and CMR has set up an Incubation Centre – “Electropreneur Park” in New Delhi. The incubator has been set up in the varsity’s South Campus with an investment of Rs. 21 crore. 5 City Roadshows were conducted and 300+ applications were received. 20 proposals were shortlisted for evaluation by Project Evaluation Team and out of which 5 have been selected.

TALENT CIG

A subset of IESA initiated by a group of dedicated experienced engineering professional who felt the need to work towards uplifting the current education structure to produce better next generation engineers (Electronics & Computer Science) who will focus on adding value to the corporate world with the skills acquired though learning process. Talent CIG currently consists of senior semi-conductor industry veterans with in depth knowledge and experience in their respective fields.